Principles of Town Planning
Town planning cannot be studied in isolation. It involves the study of various subjects such as engineering, architecture, surveying, transportation planning etc. The intention of the town planning is to satisfy the needs of our future generations and prevent the haphazard growth of the town. Some of the guiding principles of town planning are as follows:
The town should be divided into suitable zones such as commercial zone, industrial zone, residential zone, etc and suitable rules and regulations should be formed for the development of each zone.
2. Green belt
Green belt is non-development zone on the periphery of the town. It prevents the haphazard sprawl of the town restricting its size. In essence, a green belt is an invisible line designating a border around a certain area, preventing development of the area and allowing wildlife to return and be established. Greenways and green wedges have a linear character and may run across the town and not around the town.
Housing has to be carefully studied and designed to suit the local population. Care should be taken to see that there is no development of slums since it would be responsible for degrading the life of the citizens. There are various types of housing styles. When a landuse plan is made, zones for independent housing, midrise buildings, high rise buildings are allocated. Landuse maps are of two types. Type 1 helps us study the landuse on a broad range. All we can see are the residential, commercial and recreational zones.
4. Public buildings
Public buildings should be well grouped and distributed throughout the town. Unnecessary concentration of public buildings should be avoided. Factors such as parking facilities, road widths have to be taken into consideration while allocating the space for public buildings.
5. Recreation centres
Recreation centres have to be given importance while designing a town. They are necessary for the recreational activities of the general public. They include parks for walking and cycling, amusement parks etc.
6. Road systems
Road network hierarchy is very important. The efficiency of any town is measured by the layout of its roads. A nicely designed road system puts a great impression in the minds of people, especially the visitors to the town. The provision of a faulty road system in the initial stages of town formation proves to be too difficult and costly to repair or to re-arrange in future.
7. Transport facilities
The town should be provided with suitable transport facilities so that there is minimum loss of time from place of work to the place of residence. Efficiency in transport facilities includes both public and private networks. Public transportation network includes access to buses, trains, trams and trolleybuses. Efficiency in using the public transport will determine the success of that town in terms of design.
Town planning has gained a lot of importance today. New towns are being developed. It has become very important for the town planners to concentrate on old development as well as the new development. It is essential that old and new development are linked properly. Energy efficiency in planning should be the goal of any town planner, urban designer or an Architect.